The Anatomy of a Tree Trunk

Starting from the outside, there are five individual layers that make up a tree trunk. Each layer has its own unique attributes, and plays an integral role in tree health. Continue reading to learn about all 5 layers and how they work together to produce and maintain a healthy tree.

Noblesville Tree Trunk Removal 317-537-9770

Noblesville Tree Trunk Removal 317-537-9770

5 Layers of a Tree Trunk

Outer Bark

Outer bark is a tree’s exterior protection system. One of its most important purposes is moisture regulation. It keeps excess moisture out during wet conditions, and retains moisture within the tree in dry conditions. It also protects the tree from heat, cold, and pests. Outer bark is continually renewing itself from within, developing new material each season.

Inner Bark

Inner bark is just under the outer bark, as the name describes. Also known as the phloem, its primary role is to provide a pathway for the distribution of food and nutrients. It has a very short lifespan, turning quickly to cork, and eventually merging with the outer bark.

Cambium Cell Layer

The part of the tree trunk that is actively growing is the cambium cell layer. Each year, it grows new bark and wood as a response to hormones called auxins. These hormones are passed down from the inner bark, and contain food from leaves that stimulate new cell growth. It is much thinner than the other layers, but integral in overall tree strength and resilience.


Similar to the inner bark that acts as a pipeline for food and nutrients, the sapwood layer is the central distribution line for water. It is brand new wood that transports water up the trunk and to the leaves. As new sapwood grows, inner cells lose their vigor and transform into heartwood.


Heartwood is deadwood composed of hollow, needle-like cellulose fibers bound together by a chemical glue called lignin. This composition leads many professionals to compare its strength to steel! For this reason, it is a highly important part of the trunk because it is the central support mast for the entire tree. Although dead, it does not decompose, which means it maintains its strength and durability so long as the outer layers are still whole.

Noblesville Tree Service

Tree Service Noblesville 317-537-9770

Noblesville Tree Service 317-537-9770

Call 317-537-9770 for Noblesville tree service and tree removal advice you can trust. We are highly trained and experienced tree care technicians that offer a wide range of residential and commercial tree services at the most competitive prices in town. We offer everything from routine tree services to major tree work, and more. And don’t forget about our tree service coupons! Call 317-537-9770 to request a free estimate, today.

Causes, Cures, and Prevention for Oak Wilt Disease

Noblesville Tree Service 317-537-9770

Noblesville Tree Service 317-537-9770

Oak trees are susceptible to many tree diseases, but one of the most common infections they may encounter in the Eastern and Central regions of the United States is called Oak Wilt. Oak Wilt is a fungal infection caused by the fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum.

All species of Oak can become infected with this disease, however, it is more common in Red Oak subgenus species, such as Black, Red, Scarlet, Hills, and Pin. This is in contrast to White Oak subgenus species, including White, Swamp White, Bur, English, and Chinquapin.

Red Oak species can die or decline rapidly after coming down with Oak Wilt, usually within weeks or months, while White Oak species generally experience a slower decline. But not all infected trees die; some species of White Oak have been known to spring back after one year or so.

Causes and Symptoms

Oak wilt is mostly spread through transmission of root graphs. Sometimes, when trees are within 50 feet of one another, their underground root systems will actually fuse together and share the same vascular system. This network of tree roots allows the Oak Wilt fungus to transmit freely among trees. This is why it is common to see an entire string of infected trees. Oak Wilt can also be spread through beetles carrying fungal spores from tree to tree.

The fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, invades the Xylem (tissues or vessels that conduct water dispersal in trees), which prompts a tree to essentially clog its own water distribution system. This, of course, inhibits the normal rate of water flow from the roots to the canopy of the tree, resulting in a wide range of symptoms and after-effects. The most distinguishable effect is wilting leaves and foliage, hence the name “Oak Wilt.”

Common Symptoms in Red Oaks

Oak Wilt in Red Oak subgenus species usually begins at the tree’s canopy, and simultaneously works its way downward and inward throughout the tree. This is made evident by leaf discoloration (grayish-green or brown tips), complete defoliation, weakened bark, fungal mats and patches, fruity odor, sticky sap-like fluid production, insect infestation (namely picnic beetles and bark beetles), and more.

Common Symptoms in White Oaks

Common symptoms of Oak Wilt in White Oaks are nearly the same as the symptoms seen in Red Oak subgenus species. The only difference is the time-frame in which the symptoms appear and last. White Oaks experience symptoms slower, usually between 1 and 6 years, and also more localized on the tree, such as its branches. And they do not lose all their leaves.

Cures and Control

There is still no way to really cure an infected Oak Tree. Some have found that fertilizer tree injections directly into the root system can be an effective form of treatment. But often times, tree removal is the best option. Prevention is the most effective way to prevent your Oak Trees from becoming infected with Oak Wilt and other diseases. Professional, routine tree care is a viral part of protecting your landscaping trees, as well as, proper pruning, mulching, watering, and fertilizing. Talk to your local tree service specialist for professional advice regarding proper tree care.

Noblesville Tree Service

Tree Service Noblesville 317-537-9770

Tree Service Noblesville 317-537-9770

Call 317-537-9770 for professional tree service in Noblesville, Indiana. We are experienced tree care contractors that offer a wide range of residential and commercial tree services at the most competitive prices in town. We even offer tree service coupons and discounts! Call 317-537-9770 to request a free estimate for Noblesville tree service, today.

Which Types of Trees Can Be Planted in Shade?

Trees are significant investments, so it is important to choose the right species for your particular landscape. Not all properties are exposed to sun as others are, making it difficult to find flora that suits their shady environments. Some properties are plush with evergreens, and never see sunlight at all. For these kinds of properties, or areas in a yard that remain mostly shady, the right tree choice is vital. Not all trees can survive in shade or even partial shade. No matter how much water, fertilizer, and root stimulator you use, certain tree species simply cannot thrive without natural sunlight.

So if your property is one with mostly shade, or shady sections, and you wish to plant some new trees, be sure to educate yourself on the appropriate species to buy for optimal growth and survival. Continue reading to review a list of trees that can survive in shady, or partly-shady environments, in the Northeastern regions of the country.

Tree Species that Survive in Shade:

• Red Maple
• Sugar Maple
• American Holly
• Flowering Dogwood
• Red Mulberry
• White, Black, Red Spruce
• Eastern Hemlock
• Northern White Cedar
• Balsam Fir
• Atlantic White Cypress
• Atlantic White Cedar
• American Hornbeam
• Buckeyes
• Persimmon
• Basswood
• American Beech

Tree Species that Survive in Partial Shade:

• White, Black, Bur, and Northern Red Oak
• Easter White Pine
• American and Rock Elm
• Bald Cypress
• Green, Black, and White Ash
• Slash Pine
• Hickories
• Silver Maple
• American Chestnut
• Magnolias
• Yellow and Sweet Birch
• Hackberry

Hopefully this list of shade-tolerant tree species can help you decide which ones are a perfect fit for your landscaping needs. Contact a professional tree care company for tree transplanting advice, information about caring for newly planted trees, tree service, and more.

Tree Service Noblesville Indiana

Tree Service Noblesville IN

Tree Service Noblesville 317-537-9770

Call 317-537-9770 for professional tree service in Noblesville, Indiana. Our highly trained and qualified tree contractors provide a wide range of tree care and service for residential and commercial properties; all at the most competitive prices in Indianapolis! If you need advice about planting trees, give us a call for answers you can trust. Just dial 317-537-9770 and speak directly with a tree care specialist about Noblesville tree service and more.

Preparing Our Trees for Spring

With the increasing temperatures and daylight, we all know springtime is coming. This means we are thinking about our outdoor needs and how we plan to accomplish those before the season sets in entirely. Winter weather can damage trees and the surrounding environment. And it’s the time of year when all of these signs are apparent, so pre-spring overhaul is necessary to get your property back to normal. Trees are important assets to any property, and must be properly cared for to ensure longevity and safety. Now that spring is near, it’s time to take action and get your trees in good shape for the upcoming warm seasons. Continue reading for tips on spring tree care.

Post-Winter Cleanup

Once the snow is gone, the weather is warmer, and the sun is consistently out, you can better see the damages and downfalls winter causes the landscape. Trees are often effected by this, which can be hazardous to people and property. Now is the time to inspect your trees and the surrounding landscape to start turning your property around, and getting your landscaping back to a healthy state. Here’s what to do:

1. First look around for damage to any power lines. If you spot a fallen, leaning, or exposed power line, call the local power company immediately. Trees and properties can catch fire from exposed or defective power lines.

2. Next look at your trees. Inspect the tree’s trunk, bark, limbs, and any exposed root system. Look for peeling bark, fallen bark, rotten or spongy bark, tree wounds, odors, or any insect infestations. These are all signs of a dead or dying tree.

3. If you find a tree in any of the above conditions, check to see if it is dead or alive by snapping off a twig and cutting into the bark. If the meat inside the twig is bright or dull green, the tree is alive, if it’s brown or dark, the tree is dead. If it’s a dull green, there might be something wrong with your tree and it will require some treatment and care.

Here’s an important tip: Do Not Attempt to Use a Chainsaw to Cut Down Tree Branches or Trees. If you are not properly trained, or if you do not have any experience, this is an extremely dangerous activity. If you must use a saw, use a handsaw.

4. A dead tree must be removed because it can pose a threat to humans and properties. If it is a small tree, simply use a handsaw to cut it down. Use the V-technique for safe tree falls. Look around for obstructions before cutting down a small tree to ensure nothing will be harmed when it falls.

5. For larger trees, it is strongly encouraged to contact a licensed tree removal company for safe and efficient tree services.

Tree Removal Noblesville Indiana

Tree Service Noblesville 317-537-9770

Noblesville Tree Service 317-537-9770

Call 317-537-9770 for safe and affordable tree removal in Noblesville, Indiana. We are highly trained and qualified tree contractors with decades of experience in the industry. We provide a wide range of tree services on top of tree removal, for both residential and commercial properties. Call 317-537-9770 today for a free estimate or information about tree removal service in Noblesville, IN and its surrounding counties.